The Government of India has undertaken extensive study on variability of monsoon especially in South Asia. Details and findings of the study are:-
• Monsoon varies on all time scales from daily to seasonal, decadal and centennial. We have good understanding especially on intra seasonal and seasonal variability
• The mechanisms driving the Monsoon Intra-seasonal variability are understood in great detail, which lead to the successful setting up of an extended range prediction system for all the seasons by Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES). This includes both the summer and winter monsoons up to three weeks, heat wave conditions etc.
• A dynamical Seasonal prediction system for seasonal monsoon prediction is set up through monsoon mission mode initiative by MoES.
• The tele-connection between El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and monsoon and its time varying relationships are established. As a result most of the current seasonal prediction models are currently able to capture these tele-connections.
• Sub-seasonal variability of monsoon and its relationship with ENSO and Indian Ocean established.
• Changing mean state of Indian Ocean and its role on possible weakening of ENSO monsoon tele-connections is understood in great detail.
• The relationship between South-East Asia rainfall variability with Indian rainfall variability is established.